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4th International Conference on Crystallography & Novel Materials, will be organized around the theme “Using Novel Materials Exploring Different Crystallography Techniques”
Crystallography Congress 2018 is comprised of keynote and speakers sessions on latest cutting edge research designed to offer comprehensive global discussions that address current issues in Crystallography Congress 2018
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Crystallographic methods are now dependent on classification of the diffraction patterns of a material that is targeted by a beam of different kind of rays. X-rays are mostly used beams that include electrons or neutrons. This is given by the wave properties of the material particles. Cryptographers mostly state the kind of beam used, is the terms X-ray crystallography, neutron diffraction and electron diffraction. There has been quite some time that this confirmation of the crystal or any material from outside normality is detected with the consistency of the inside structure.
- Track 1-1Computational Crystallography
- Track 1-2Industrial Crystallization
- Track 1-3Functional Crystals
- Track 1-4Organic & Inorganic Crystals
- Track 1-5Porous and Liquid Crystals
- Track 1-6Powder Diffraction Crystallography of Molecular Solids
- Track 1-7Screw Dislocations
- Track 1-8Edge Dislocations
Novel materials have major roles in different fields of engineering; they are given by different structures and materials, to our knowledge to the physical and the virtual world. It should be obvious that all matters are made of crystal materials. From the past it can be seen that there are only about hundred different types of molecules in the entire world. There are same hundred different molecules that shape a great and many different substances including the air we inhale to metal the used to bolster many tall structures. Metals that carry unique property of pottery, and earthenware production are uniquely in contrast to polymers. The properties of materials depend upon the iotas that are utilized and how they are made together. The structure of different novel materials can be differentiated by the general extent of different elements. The nuclear structure of any novel material basically influences the substance's physical, warm, electrical, attractive, and optical properties. Also the micro-structure and macro-structure can influence these properties but they mostly affect the mechanical properties and the rate of concoction response. The properties of the novel material offer intimations with the structure of the different novel material.
- Track 2-1Nano materials and Molecular crystals
- Track 2-2Structure of interfaces
- Track 2-3Materials science and energy-related materials
- Track 2-4Metals and alloys
- Track 2-5Super alloys
- Track 2-6Ceramics
- Track 2-7Polymers
- Track 2-8Thin films
- Track 2-9Phase Transitions in Materials
- Track 2-10NMR Studies of Materials
- Track 2-11Structure of interfaces
- Track 2-12Novel crystallization strategies for XFEL studies
Chemical crystallography is an application of diffraction techniques to the study of structural chemistry. A frequent purpose is the identification of natural products, or of the products of synthetic chemistry experiments; however detailed molecular geometry, inter molecular interactions and absolute configurations can also be studied. Different chemical Structures are studied as a function of temperature, pressure, application of electromagnetic radiation, magnetic or electric field: these kind studies comprises of only small minority of the total structures. The single crystal is used in x-ray diffraction to find the structure of a chemical compound that has been historically classified as 'Chemical Crystallography'. Most of these difficulties can be mostly overcome by employing more powerful radiation sources as the extent of diffraction depends on the number of electrons an atom has, and finding the positions of hydrogen atoms using X-ray diffraction can be difficult.
- Track 3-1Structure and Properties of Functional Materials
- Track 3-2Metal-organic Frameworks and Inorganic Hybrid Materials
- Track 3-3Reactions and Dynamics in the Solid State
- Track 3-4Small Molecule Crystallography: Novel Structures
- Track 3-5Bio macromolecules
- Track 3-6Supramolecular Crystallography
- Track 3-7Powder diffraction
- Track 3-8Single crystal diffraction
The crystal or any material growth is a most important part of a crystallization process, and it consists of new atoms, ions, or polymer strings into the characteristic arrangement of a crystalline called the Bravais lattice. The crystal growth always follows an initial stage of both homogeneous and heterogeneous (surface catalysed) nucleation, and unless a "seed" crystal, is added to start the growth, that is already exist. X-beams are used to examine the basic properties of solids, fluids or gels. Photons will interact with electrons, and give information about the vacillations of electronic densities of the different matter. The process of crystal growth produces a crystalline solid whose atoms or molecules are typically closely packed, with fixed and same positions in space relative to one another. The crystalline state of matter is differentiated by a distinct structural rigidity and high resistance to deformation (i.e. changes of shape and/or volume). Many crystalline solids have high values of Young's modulus and shear modulus of elasticity. These are same with most liquids or fluids, which have a low shear modulus, and also exhibit the macroscopic viscous flow.
- Track 4-1Nano crystallography
- Track 4-2Phase Transitions: seeding, growth, transport
- Track 4-3Organic Crystal Scintillators
- Track 4-4Diamonds growth
- Track 4-5Crystal morphology
- Track 4-6Crystallization techniques
- Track 4-7Electron Microscopy and diffraction
- Track 4-8Synchrotron and neutron sources, instrumentation and application
- Track 4-9Diffraction imaging and XFELS
- Track 4-10Recent Developments in Crystal Growth
Biology in Crystallography is the structural biology that helps us to see the detail that are missing from the view and also consequently as a powerful tool to unpick the intricate and also exquisite choreography of life. For centuries, we have been able to visualize structures inside a cell, but even the most powerful microscopes are limited in the detail they provide, either by the sheer physical boundaries of magnification, or because the samples themselves are not alive and working. Structural biology methods delve beneath these limits bringing molecules to live in three Dimensions and into sharper focus. It has reached to the very limits of how a molecule works and how its function can be modified. Proteins are built with a DNA template and the string of amino acids then synthesized into very complex loops, sheets and coils – it might be seen like a tangle, but these structures indicate how the protein will interact with other structures around it in order to undertake its role in the cell. The elegant structures of crystals and the complexes that are formed can be breath-taking in their logic and symmetry, but they are also useful in helping us to understand how cells actually work. Most of the shapes, sizes and assemblies of molecules can be assigned to various compartments in cells and thus put into context with their surrounding environment.
- Track 5-1Protein Crystallography
- Track 5-2X-ray Crystallography
- Track 5-3Structural biology and signalling pathways
- Track 5-4New tools and methods in structural biology
- Track 5-5Membrane Proteins Crystallography
- Track 5-6Neutron crystallography
- Track 5-7Phase Transformation Studies
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) crystallography is a type method that uses primary NMR spectroscopy to find the structure of different solid materials in the atomic scale. So the solid-state NMR spectroscopy will be used primarily, and possibly supplemented by quantum chemistry calculations (e.g. density functional theory), powder diffraction etc. If crystals is grown is properly and uniquely, any crystallographic method can generally be used to determine the crystal structure and in case of organic compounds the molecular structures and molecular packing. The main use of NMR crystallography is in determining micro crystalline materials which are used to this method but not to X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction. This is largely used because interactions that are short range are measured in NMR crystallography.
- Track 6-1Dipolar interaction
- Track 6-2Non-covalent interactions
- Track 6-3Solid-State NMR
- Track 6-4Crystal Structure Refinements
- Track 6-5Chemical shift interaction
Electron Crystallography is a type of method that can supplement X ray-beam crystallography for the determination of small crystals, both inorganic, natural, and proteins, for example, the layer proteins, that have the substantial 3-dimensional precious stones are required for that procedure. Different protein structures are taken from either 2-dimensional sheets or helices, polyhedrons, or scattered individual proteins. Electrons can be used in the place of X ray-beams and on account of electrons interface more easily with molecules than that of X-Ray beams do. In this case, X-beams will go through a thin 2-dimensional precious stone that will be diffracting altogether, though electrons can be used to model a picture. On the other hand, the solid interaction between electrons and protons will make thick gems impenetrable to electrons. The major drawback in X ray-beam crystallography is when checking the stages in the diffraction design. As the X-beam focal point is predicted, it is hard to model a structure of the different gems that are being diffracted.
- Track 7-1Structural Determinations
- Track 7-2Mass Spectrometry
- Track 7-3Fluorescence Anisotropy
- Track 7-4Nuclear Magnetic Resonance methods
- Track 7-5Chemical Modifications
- Track 7-6Molecular Docking
- Track 7-7Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)
- Track 7-8Inorganic Crystal Studies
There are many different developments made like X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) that give different possibilities for X-ray crystallographic, spectroscopic studies of different radiation and sensitive biological samples that close to physiological conditions. To use these new X-ray methods, tailored experimental methods, data-processing protocols have to be imitated. The highly radiated-sensitive photosystem II (PSII) protein complex is a main target used for XFEL experiments used to study the mechanism of light-induced in water oxidation taking place at a Mn cluster in the complex. Then there was development of a set of tools for the study of PSII at XFELs, using a new liquid jet based on electrocuting, energy dispersive von Hamos the X-ray emission spectrometer for the hard X-ray range and also high-throughput soft X-ray spectrometer up on a reflection zone plate. But our next focus is on PSII, that the methods we use here are applicable to a wide range of metalloenzymes.
- Track 8-1Quantitative analysis
- Track 8-2Crystal structure refinement by the Rietveld method
- Track 8-3Stress, Strain and Crystallite size determination
- Track 8-4Small angle scattering
- Track 8-5Quantum Crystallography
- Track 8-6Biological Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (Bio-SANS)
- Track 8-7Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS)
The first law of thermodynamics, energy can neither be created nor destroyed. However we still need to be conservative in usage because of the efficiency, we cannot make full use of the energy. Large amount of energy is wasted. So how can we minimize energy waste and how can we reuse the wasted energy becomes critical in energy saving. Nanotechnology is considered to be one of the most important future technologies involving several disciplines of science including solid state physics, solid state chemistry, solid state ionic, materials engineering, medical science and biotechnology. Manipulating matter at the manometer scale, using building blocks with dimensions in the Nano-size range, makes it possible to design and create new materials with unprecedented functionality and novel or improved properties. Nanostructured materials made of Nano sized grains or nanoparticles as building blocks, have a significant fraction of grain boundaries with a high degree of disorder of atoms along the grain boundaries (or particle surfaces), and a large ratio of interface (or surface) area to volume.
- Track 9-1Novel biomass, bio based materials and composites
- Track 9-2Novel polymers such as conducting, semiconducting
- Track 9-3Novel energy systems including fuel cells, solar cells
- Track 9-4Novel materials for fuel production, conversion or storage
- Track 9-5Novel eco-friendly materials, environ-mental engineering
- Track 9-6Novel materials related to coal, carbon, and fullerene
The escalating demand for alternative, clean energy sources requires the development of new and effective materials for energy recovery, conversion, storage, and transfer. Thermoelectric (TE) materials convert heat into electrical energy and vice versa and, as such, are promising materials for waste heat reduction or recovery. Further advances in thermoelectric materials could enable stand-alone solid state heat engines. Today, applications of TE materials range from portable refrigerating bags and outdoor cell phone chargers to modern units designed for power generation in space utilizing heat from nuclear sources to power solar system exploration missions. Thermodynamic data are the solubility curves, the presence of metastable phases, polymorphs, liquid-liquid separation… They depend on multiple parameters such as temperature, pH, solvent, impurities, etc. In addition, kinetic trajectories in the phase diagram are relevant to control most of the final properties of the synthesized crystals. The path followed in the diagram controls the nucleation and growth of the crystals, and thus their number, size, and morphology.
- Track 10-1Semi classical Theory of Thermoelectricity in Solids
- Track 10-2Thermoelectric Materials
- Track 10-3Silicon and Si–Ge Alloys
- Track 10-4Temperature Sensing – Thermocouples
- Track 10-5Electron Conductivity
- Track 10-6Thermal Conductivity
The method computational crystallography is the new method that has a high-resolution X-ray sources that are currently made, like the LCLS in Stanford and the EXFEL in Hamburg, new methods of data acquisition may become possible only for the structural characterization of Nano-meter sized material that are made up to atomic resolution. In our computational crystallography there are subgroup that are developed for the new crystallographic methods and approaches for developing the ultra-fast structural changes in both micro- and macro-molecular structures and assemblies of both non-periodic or quasiperiodic type. This field of crystallography has been evolved together with the developments in computer science and molecular biology, making three-dimensional structure determination of complex or crystal faster and easy for biological assemblies in this method.
- Track 11-1Optimization method
- Track 11-2Sampling method
- Track 11-3Chain-folded lamellae
- Track 11-4Gibbs-Thomson equation: Melting of polymer crystals
- Track 11-5Mechanism of chain unfolding upon Annealing
- Track 11-6Synthesis of aqueous dispersion of polyethylene Nano crystals
Future challenges for crystallography in structure-based drug discovery are in the fields of data validation, data mining and data management. State-of-the-art validation methodologies in protein crystallography have been broadly documented. However, successful application of these validation principles requires continuous efforts. Easy-to-use and sophisticated tools for the critical assessment and realistic interpretation of macromolecular model coordinates are still in short supply. Advanced tools designed to tackle the mentioned pitfalls should be of particular interest. These include tools for the visualization and analysis of structure determination statistics, atomic displacement and translation liberation screw motions (TLS) parameters, and structural fluctuations, as well as validation protocols for verifying stereochemistry and agreement with the electron density of all heterogeneous regions of macromolecular models.
- Track 12-1Design and manufacture of different crystals
- Track 12-2Synthesis and characterization
- Track 12-3Liquid crystals
- Track 12-4Chemical metrology of materials
- Track 12-5Green chemistry in crystallography
There are different types of crystallography techniques used to find the crystal diffraction and Precession electron diffraction (PED) is one of the methods to gather the electron diffraction patterns in a type of microscope called transmission electron microscope (TEM). Using this method the patterns are seen by processing an incident electron beam across the central axis of the microscope, then there is PED pattern that is formed by integration along the diffraction patterns. These patterns will produce a quasi-kinematical diffraction pattern that is mostly used as input for the direct methods algorithms to understand the crystallography structure of any sample or crystal.
- Track 13-1Broader range of measured reflections
- Track 13-2Practical robustness
- Track 13-3Symmetry determination
- Track 13-4Direct methods in crystallography
- Track 13-5Ab Initio structure determination
- Track 13-6Automated diffraction tomography
The development of the Novel materials has been more powerful development that has led to most important technological advancements in recent history of Crystallography. But the physical and computational means related to the enhancing computational capabilities at the device or material levels have also started making very challenging set of situation for keeping electronic devices cool, a most important factor in determining their speed, efficiency, and reliability. As there are many advances in Nano-electronics and also in the emergence of new application such as three-dimensional chip stack architectures and also in the flexible electronics, now than ever there are needs and opportunities for the novel materials to help in addressing some of these thermal management challenges and also in the future development of the novel materials.
- Track 14-1Chemistry of novel materials
- Track 14-2Physical crystallization of novel materials
- Track 14-3Electrostatic modification of crystal materials
- Track 14-4Imaging methods used for development
Neutron diffraction scattering in X-ray crystallography is the application used for neutron scattering to the find the atomic or magnetic structure of any crystal or material. The process of determination of a sample is done by placing the sample in a beam of thermal or cold neutrons to observe a diffraction pattern that gives details about the structure of the material. This neutron diffraction technique is same as X-ray diffraction but of their different scattering properties, neutrons and X-rays will give the same information about the beams X-Rays are mostly used for the high resolution analysis of strong x-rays from synchrotron radiation that are mostly used for the shallow depths or thin specimens but neutrons have high penetration depth.
- Track 15-1Crystallography scattering
- Track 15-2Crystallographic database
- Track 15-3Electron diffraction
- Track 15-4Inelastic neutron scattering
Crystallography method is used to study different materials that form crystals like salts, metals, minerals, semiconductors, as well as various inorganic, organic and biological molecules. It is also used determine the electron density, the mean positions of the atoms in the crystal and their chemical bonds, disorder and various other information. Crystallography has been a used widely for the extraction of compounds in milk and any other types of information obtained through structure function relationship. Although more detailed information from X-ray analysis has been secured from substances which are commonly known to be crystalline, it has been surprising to find substances commonly thought of as being non-crystalline as actually having a partially crystalline structure and that this structure can be changed by heat treatment, pressure, stretching, etc. Casein is an example of the latter class of proteins. Stewart has shown that even solutions tend to assume an orderly arrangement of groups within the solution.
- Track 16-1Powder diffraction
- Track 16-2Micro crystallography
- Track 16-3High-Resolution Charge Density Studies
- Track 16-4Photo-Crystallography
- Track 16-5Resonance Diffraction
- Track 16-6Surface Stress Measurements
- Track 16-7Spectroscopy at Fusion Reactors
- Track 16-8Molecular crystallography
- Track 16-9Pre-clinical imaging
- Track 16-10Semiconductors and Insulators
Nanotechnology is a leading interdisciplinary science that is emerging as a distinctive field of research. Its advances and applications will result in technical capabilities that will allow the development of novel nanomaterial’s with applications that will revolutionize the industry in many areas. Nanoparticles are one of the cornerstones of nanotechnology. Indeed, even though the research in this field has been underway for a long time, many present and future applications are based on nanoparticles. The development of nanotechnology can be approached from several directions; microscopic physics, microelectronics, materials nanotechnology, and cluster science. The different possible structures include Nano rods, nanoparticles, fullerenes, nanotubes, and layered materials. The status and prospects of protein micro crystallography (MPX) at high brilliance synchrotron radiation sources are reviewed. We discuss emerging trends in miniaturizing sample environments for serial crystallography (SX) experiments allowing manipulation and positioning of biological objects down to Nano scale dimensions with low contact forces.
- Track 17-1 Synchrotron Radiation Serial Crystallography
- Track 17-2Nano science research
- Track 17-3Polymer Nanomaterials
- Track 17-4Composition Identification of nanomaterial’s
- Track 17-5Nanotechnology researches
- Track 17-6Nanocrystals
- Track 17-7Nano-materials using X-ray diffraction
Mineralogy is geological resources of major economic importance. Most of them are crystalline which explains the important role played by crystallography in their study. Minerals may occur either massive or forming characteristic geometric forms known as crystals. Max von Laue discovered the diffraction of X-rays by crystals and almost immediately diffraction methods were applied to the structural characterization of minerals. One early success of X-ray crystallography was the structural classification of silicate minerals. However, application of X-ray diffraction was not limited to minerals. It was soon used for the structural characterization of molecular crystals as well and, later on, even of proteins. Nowadays, crystallography is commonly employed in many branches of experimental sciences such as physics, chemistry, biochemistry, and geology among others. Mineralogy is basically the science of minerals, which includes their crystallography, chemical composition, physical properties, genesis, their identification and their classification. Mineralogy is one of the branches in science of Geology and there are also related subjects such as Nano materials, material science, and metallurgy and Nano science. “Principles of Elementary Mineralogy and Crystallography”. We have reviewed the historical perspective of the science of mineralogy, cited some of the evidences for the prehistoric uses of minerals and rocks, and described some of the principle applications of the science of mineralogy.
- Track 18-1Isotropic or Anisotropic
- Track 18-2Extinction Angle in crystal
- Track 18-3Mineral chemistry
- Track 18-4Crystallization from an igneous magma or lava
- Track 18-5Bio mineralogy
- Track 18-6Alternation in the mineral
- Track 18-7Analytical chemistry in mineralogy
- Track 18-8 Optical mineralogy
Material Science is the application of physics and various branches to describe the properties of materials. It is a combination of Physical sciences such as solid mechanics, solid state physics, and materials science. Crystallography is used by materials scientists to characterize different materials. In a form of crystals, the drawbacks of crystalline arrangement of atoms are easily visible to see macroscopically, as the natural shapes of the crystals will reflect the atomic structure. Materials Science in chemistry includes the synthesis of different crystals and study of materials that have very useful magnetic, optical, electronic and mechanical properties. Material science has a broad range of applications like includes composites ceramics and polymer materials. Some materials that have been analysed crystallographic ally, such as proteins, do not occur naturally as crystals. Basically all these types of molecules are kept in solution and are made to slowly crystallize by the vapour diffusion method. Materials Science role in crystallography is a scientific discipline used to find the properties of different crystals and also expanding to crystals, composite materials, surround polymers, ceramics, and biomaterials. It also involves in the recent discovery, development and designing of new materials.
- Track 19-1Materials Characterization
- Track 19-2Functional materials
- Track 19-3Material structures
- Track 19-4Molecular crystals
- Track 19-5Structural materials
- Track 19-6Materials Synthesis and processing
- Track 19-7Soft materials and polymers
- Track 19-8Engineering applications of materials
- Track 19-9Materials Chemistry and Physics